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Twelfth Grade


  • Students deepen their love of the person and work of Jesus through an examination of the ways in which the four gospels all point toward the same Jesus, while having stylistic differences that enhance the literary portrait of our Savior. 
  • Students will be able to demonstrate an understanding of how the texts they study were used in modern debates about the historical Jesus among other faiths, through writing exercises of Encomium and Viturpation and oral exercises of the formal dialectical method. 
  • Students will engage in sustained and disciplined inquiry into the life and work of the Apostle Paul by doing the following: 
  • Debate different modern interpretations of the biblical gospel through writing exercises and oral exercises of formal dialectic 
  • Become familiar with the way the different Gospels were used in the life of the church, and see how this effects the reading and application of God’s Holy Word to all of life 
  • Engage in a multiyear study of the use of figures of speech in holy scripture, through use of the text by Bullinger 
  • Find events in the text on geographical maps, and observing the change of maps over time, and locate events in the text on a timeline 
  • Memorize sections of the gospels and recite or sing them as a class and individually 
  • Apply biblical concepts learned in class to real-world situations, so that they will be prepared to apply them to unpredictable situations later in life 
  • Engage in a sustained inquiry into the interpretation of the controversy surrounding the life and work of Jesus, as seen in a research paper based in the class reading of a book on finding the one Jesus in the four gospels 
  • Pray these scriptures through the adoption of a habitual practice of morning and evening prayer, modeled on Lectio Divina  
  • The student will academically study the same passages they pray so that God’s Spirit will form both the head and the heart for a lifelong love of God’s Word. 


The student will gain a working knowledge of the American constitutional order, to be able to discharge their civic duty as a citizen for the Glory of God.  They will trace the development and corruption of constitutional order through time.  

The students will engage in a long-term close Christian reading and debate of the Federalist and Anti-Federalist papers in addition to selections from the following: 

  • Social Contract, by Jean Jacque Rousseau 
  • The Servile State, by Hilaire Belloc 
  • Of Plymouth Plantation, by William Bradford 
  • American Revolutionary Era sermons  
  • Classical sources of the English Commonwealthmen and republican traditions 
  • Reflections on the Revolution in France, by Edmund Burke 
  • Supreme Court opinions and laws that profoundly shaped our polity 
  • Social teachings of the church as seen in doctrines of subsidiarity and sphere sovereignty and distributivism 
  • Students will also engage in a sustained inquiry into the interpretation of the controversy surrounding the obligations of Christian citizenship, as seen in a research paper based in the class reading of a book on Christian Citizenship selected by the teacher 



  • Students will gain an appreciation for the continuity and discontinuity that exists between ancient, medieval and our American civilization.   
  • Building on their extensive knowledge of the ancient and medieval worlds, students will engage in sustained and disciplined inquiry into the American civilization by doing the following: 
  • Debate different historical interpretations of controversial American events through writing exercises of Encomium and Viturpation and oral exercises of formal dialectic 
  • Find events in the text on geographical maps, and observing the change of maps over time 
  • Locate events in the text on a timeline and memorization of the Geneva Academy timeline for the class 
  • Apply insights from historical research to the real world, so they will be prepared to apply them to unpredictable events in life  
  • Explore changes in different styles of historiography and see the relation of this to history (selections from Historiography: Ancient, Medieval and Modern 3rd Edition, and Hayden White’s Metahistory)  

Students will spend extended time developing close reading skills in primary source historical material including but not limited to:   

  • Various early explorers and colonial-era literature   
  • Selections from Of Plymouth Plantation, by William Bradford and other puritan writings 
  • American Revolutionary era pamphlets  
  • Democracy in America, by De Tocqueville and other travel record literature 
  • Gilded Age and Industrial Revolution and Westward Expansion selections 
  • Mexican-American War and Civil War, from Battle Cry Freedom  
  • Selections from Marie Chestnut and other diaries  
  • Reconstruction and Radical Republicanism political documents 
  • World War I & II documents 
  • Great Depression and “New Deal” documents 
  • Progressive era and emigration selections  
  • Cold War-era selections up to the Fall of the Soviet Union 
  • Korea, Vietnam and Civil Rights Era documents 
  • 9/11 and the War on Terror 

The teacher will draw from volume one and two of A Concise History of the American Republic, by Samuel Eliot Morison, Henry Steele Commager, et al. and other sources. 



  • Students will gain an appreciation for the literature of American civilization from the founding to the present. 
  • Students will engage in sustained and disciplined inquiry into the literature of American civilization by doing the following: 
  • Debate different historical interpretations through writing exercises of Encomium and Viturpation and oral exercises of formal dialectic 
  • Locate literary events on a historical timeline and memorization of Geneva Academy timeline for the class 
  • Use experience to interpret texts and apply insights from literature to the real world, so they will be prepared to apply them to unpredictable events later in life  
  • Become familiar with the writing/editing process through a weekly rough draft revision in peer editing sessions and teacher corrections  
  • Imitate good writing at the sentence, paragraph and essay level, separating form from content and adapting the form to new content from the student's own experience 
  • Develop extensive vocabulary and copious writing skills through the use of Erasmus’ writing exercises, and weekly vocabulary games taken from the readings 
  • Memorization of American poetry 

Students will cultivate close reading skills by reading and debating the interpretation of great works of literature in the primary source, including but not limited to the following:  

  • Paradise Lost, by Milton 
  • The Scarlet Letter, by Nathaniel Hawthorne and other early American selections 
  • Leaves of Grass, by Walt Whitman and other American poetry 
  • Moby Dick, and short stories by Herman Melville  
  • The Fable, or other selections from William Faulkner 
  • The Sun Also Rises, or other selections from Ernest Hemingway 
  • Catch 22, by Joseph Heller 
  • Fahrenheit 451, by Ray Bradbury 
  • Slaughterhouse Five, by Kurt Vonnegut 
  • Short Story collections from famous American authors like J.D. Salinger and Flannery O’Conner 
  • Other selections depending on the class and teacher judgment  
  • The teacher will also draw on collections or anthologies of American Literature as appropriate 



Students will individually apply the general topics learned through goal setting. They will also study, in-depth, the following topics:  fiat currency, fractional reserve banking, the history of central banking, differing theories of economic growth and the problem of externalities and different kinds of responses. The successful student will also be able to:  

  • GDP 
  • The Wealth of Nations and Economic Growth 
  • Growth, Capital Accumulation, and the Economics of Ideas 
  • Savings, Investment, and the Financial System 
  • Personal Finance 
  • Unemployment and Labor Force Participation 
  • Inflation and Quantity Theory of Money 
  • Business Fluctuations 
  • Business Cycle Theories 
  • Monetary Policy and the Federal Reserve 
  • Fiscal Policy 

Students will engage in a sustained and disciplined inquiry into the following primary sources about economics including by not limited to selections from:  

  • Economic Sophisms, by Frederic Bastiat or Rhetoric of Economics by McCloskey  
  • Wealth of Nations, by Adam Smith  
  • The Communist Manifesto, by Marx and Engels  
  • The General Theory of Employment, Interest, and Money by Keynes 



This is the capstone of the student's Geneva rhetorical education. The student will research, write and publicly defend their position on a controversial thesis of public importance. Students will prepare by researching and writing and delivering a speech at the speech meet, done to MLA standards.  A student who successfully completes this could be able to: 

  • Draft lines of inquiry for the purpose of researching a topic, and know of places to look 
  • Draft, edit and revise thesis statements for papers, speeches, and debates 
  • Draft, format, edit, revise and publish a substantial research paper in MLA format on both a controversial and non-controversial subject 
  • Draft, edit, revise, memorize and deliver a speech, employing appropriate rhetorical techniques for an audience 
  • Present and orally defend a well-researched thesis 
  • Do all of the above with grace and eloquence 



Students will refine their algebraic, geometric, and trigonometric skills by exploring the nature of functions and their limits, and the concepts of infinite and instantaneous.  Perhaps most notable, we will learn about the Derivative and the Integral, and the special relationship that they share, as well as advanced topics such as Multiple Integrals.  Along the way, we will explore the historical development of calculus, and the successful rhetorical and dialectical strategies that lead us to know calculus the way we do today.  

A successful student will be able to do the following:  

  • Define and describe a function  
  • Define the domain and range of a function 
  • Determine if a graph represents a function 
  • Determine the nature of the function from the graph 
  • Work with and know the Laws of Logarithms  
  • Determine the limit of a function 
  • Calculate limits using the limit laws 
  • Give the precise definition of a limit 
  • Determine the continuous or discontinuous nature of a function 
  • Find horizontal asymptotes 
  • Take the Derivative of a function using differential rules 
  • Apply the rates of change, growth, and decay to the natural sciences 
  • Use Sigma Notation and Riemann Sums to define and determine the value of a definite Integral 
  • State the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus (Part 1 and 2) 
  • Use the substitution Rule to perform a change of variables thus simplifying the Integral 


Students in this class will learn to appreciate the beauty of God’s ordering of the universe. Students will become aware of successful rhetorical and dialectical strategies in science and Physics more specifically, by examining the works of Physicists. Topics include the following: 

  • Mechanics 
  • Properties of Materials 
  • Thermodynamics 
  • Waves 
  • Optics 
  • Electricity & Magnetism 
  • Students will also become familiar with the need for experiential confirmation and refutation of theories and the rhetorical conventions governing the writing of lab reports, by engaging in many hands-on learning activities including but not limited to: 
  • Projectiles 
  • Radial Acceleration 
  • Diffraction Grating 
  • Index of Diffraction 
  • Lenses 
  • Capacitors 
  • Circuits 
  • Friction 
  • Pulleys 
  • Torque 
  • Density 
  • Springs 
  • Buoyancy 
  • Specific Heat 
  • Gravitational vs. Inertial Mass 



Students will see God's great Artistry by sustained and disciplined inquiry into the aesthetic movements of neoclassicism, Romanticism, Pre-Raphaelites, the Hudson River School, Impressionism illustration, and the rapid and often disturbing changes in art in the 20th century.   The class culminates in the student articulating and defending their understanding of a Christian aesthetic.  



Advanced Choral Music with the Kodaly method 

Students increasingly taking a leadership role in the choral singing in class and school 

Folk songs, hymns, patriotic songs, and Christian holiday works are introduced and practiced 



  • Advanced Art students will learn more about the elements of Art and Principles of Design, including a study in lettering and typography, paper cutting, drawing (with pen, ink, graphite, charcoal, and oil and chalk pastel), ceramic Sgraffito wedding vase. Successful students will also study:   
  • High relief and bas relief sculpture 
  • Plaster figure sculpture  
  • Relief printmaking,  
  • Ceramic Greek red/black figure vessels 
  • Watercolor painting 
  • Acrylic painting 



Twice a week with exercises, stretching, and individual and team games. 

Emphasis on general fitness and cultivating lifelong habits of activity