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Tenth Grade

Tenth Grade


Students will gain an appreciation for the revelation of Christ as the fulfillment of the old testament tradition of apocalyptic literature, by sustained and disciplined inquiry into the prophetic literature of the church as recorded in Isaiah, Jeremiah, Lamentation, Ezekiel, Daniel as well as the 12 “minor” Prophets and Revelation 

Students will examine the revelation of Christ as seen in the apocalyptic literature of Holy Scripture, by doing the following: 

  • Debate different Patristic and eschatological or “End Times” interpretations of the texts through writing exercises such as Encomium and Viturpation and oral exercises of formal dialectic 
  • Become familiar with the way the revelation of Christ overthrew the worlds way of telling time, and see how this affects the reading and application of God’s Holy Word to all of life 
  • Engage in a multiyear study of the use of figures of speech in holy scripture, through use of the text by Bullinger 
  • Find events in the text on geographical maps, and observing the change of maps over time, and locate events in the text on a timeline 
  • Memorize sections of the prophets and recite or sing them as a class and individually 
  • Apply biblical concepts learned in class to real-world situations, so that they will be prepared to apply them to unpredictable situations later in life 
  • Engage in a sustained inquiry into the interpretation of Revelation, as seen in a research paper based in the class reading of the book on finding Christ in the OT, or “Four Views” of Revelation 
  • Pray these scriptures through the adoption of a habitual practice of morning and evening prayer, modeled on Lectio Divina  

The student will academically study the same passages they pray so that God’s Spirit will form both the head and the heart for a lifelong love of God’s Word. 



Students will gain an appreciation for the early history of human civilization from creation to the time of Christ with specific attention given to the controversies surrounding the responsible interpretation of events such as the rise and decline of Rome and other controversial events in the history of Western Civilization.  

Students will engage in sustained and disciplined inquiry into ancient civilization by doing the following: 

  • Debate different historical interpretations of events such as the cause of the decline of the Greek and Roman Empire, through writing exercises of Encomium and Viturpation and oral exercises of formal dialectic 
  • Find events in the text on geographical maps, and observing the change of maps over time 
  • Locate events in the text on a timeline and memorization of Geneva Academy timeline for class 
  • Apply insights from historical research to the real world, so they will be prepared to apply them to unpredictable events in life  
  • Explore changes in different styles of historiography and see the relation of this to history (selections from Historiography: Ancient, Medieval and Modern 3rd Edition, and Hayden White’s Metahistory) 

Students will spend extended time developing close reading skills in primary source historical material including but not limited to:  

  • The Peloponnesian War by Thucydides 
  • The War with Hannibal, by Livy 
  • Annals of Imperial Rome, by Tacitus 
  • Selections from Josephus, including The Jewish War, and Antiquities 
  • Selections from The Apocrypha, and works of Philo 
  • Selections from 12 Caesars, by Suetonius 
  • The teacher will also draw from Susan Wise Bauer’s The History of the Ancient World and other excellent resources. 



Students will gain a deeper appreciation for the literature of ancient civilization from the time of Creation to Christ.   

Students will engage in sustained and disciplined inquiry into the literature of modern civilization by doing the following: 

  • Debate different historical interpretations through writing exercises of Encomium and Viturpation and oral exercises of formal dialectic 
  • Locate literary events on a historical timeline and memorization of Geneva Academy timeline for class 
  • Use experience to interpret texts and apply insights from literature to the real world, so they will be prepared to apply them to unpredictable events later in life  
  • Become familiar with the writing/editing process through weekly rough draft revision in peer editing sessions and teacher corrections  
  • imitate good writing at the sentence, paragraph and essay level, separating form from content and adapting the form to new content from the student's own experience 
  • develop extensive vocabulary and copious writing skills through the use of Erasmus’ writing exercises, and weekly vocabulary games taken from the readings 
  • Memorization of poetry 

Students will cultivate close reading skills by reading and responsibly entering the debate about the interpretation of great works of literature in the primary source, including but not limited to the following:  

  • Odyssey by Homer 
  • Aeneid by Virgil 
  • Greek and Roman comedies, tragedies and poetry 
  • The Republic by Plato 
  • On the Nature of Things, Lucretius 
  • Eclogues and Georgics by Virgil 
  • Metamorphoses by Ovid  
  • Poetics by Aristotle 
  • Meditations of Marcus Aurelius 
  • Patristic dialogues and debates 



Students will study the origin, history and purpose and biblical application of pathos, ethos, and logos in rhetorical forms appropriate to the situation.  Students will focus on the basic format and techniques of formal and informal argumentation, with attention given to apologetical examples.  

The teacher will make selections for classroom reading and discussion from the following: 

  • Selections from Platonic dialogues, Quintillian and Cicero  
  • Selections from On Rhetoric, and Nichomachean Ethics by Aristotle 
  • Classical Rhetoric its Secular and Biblical Traditions, by George Kennedy  
  • Classic Rhetoric for the Modern Student, by Corbett  

A successful student in this class will be able to do the following: 

  • Recall and apply the five canons of rhetoric and a proper understanding of ethos and pathos to their speech meet presentation 
  • Research, compose, memorize and deliver at the speech meet 
  • Critically judge a debate and evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of an argument 
  • Engage in newspaper or blog reading and evaluation of opinion 
  • Demonstrate rhetorical awareness of, avoidance, and felicity of refutation of logical fallacies in argumentation 



This class rounds out the students' knowledge and understanding of algebra.  The student continues the tradition of teaching lessons or presentations, to continue to develop their rhetorical competence. The successful student will also be able to recognize and solve problems in the following areas:  

  • Exponents 
  • Rational expressions 
  • Scientific notion and combining like terms 
  • Radicals, Basic operations, and simplifying 
  • Factoring polynomials and rational expressions 
  • Fractional exponents 
  • Imaginary and complex numbers 
  • Conjugate numbers 
  • Squares, Cubes and Pascals triangle 
  • Binomial theorem 
  • Completing the square 
  • Quadratic formula 
  • Discriminants 
  • Applications using percent 
  • Isolating one variable 
  • Ratios 
  • Unit multipliers and metric conversions 
  • Distance= rate X time 
  • Motion word problems 
  • Graphing lines: slope intercept formula 
  • Parallel and perpendicular lines 
  • Inequalities 
  • Distance and midpoint formulas 
  • Conic sections, circles and ellipse 
  •  Parabola, and maxima and minima 
  • Hyperbola 
  • Solving systems of equations 
  • Coins, consecutive integers, and mixtures 
  • Age and boat in the current problems 
  • Solving equations with three variables 
  • Vectors 



This course introduces students to the basic structure and concepts of life and living organisms within God’s creation.  Major areas of study include a study of what scientifically constitutes life, biological classification, and the five different kingdoms and the main phyla and their characteristics.  Students will not only study these theoretically but also gain first-hand knowledge as they dissect, compare and contrast the different organisms God has created. 

  • The different respiratory, circulatory, digestive, nervous and reproductive systems for various organisms and plants will be studied, compared and contrasted as a basis for classification. 
  • Students will also study the chemical transactions that occur at the cellular level. 
  • They will study the cell, its structure, and functions in some depth, including the reproduction of cells and thus life. 
  • Students will also study Mendelian genetics and understand how traits and genes are passed on from one organism to the other. 

In the second half of the semester, students will study rhetoric and dialectical argumentation of Charles Darwin and discuss, compare and contrast his rhetoric to the Biblical view of Creation.  Some Bio-ethical topics will be discussed throughout the class, such as euthanasia, genetic engineering, abortion, etc. as they relate to the topic at hand.  The Biblical view and authority of Scripture will be discussed and examined when these topics come up. A successful student will be able to do the following:  

  • Instill wonder and awe in students as they discover the intricate design and complexity of God’s creation. 
  • Give students a deeper understanding of how biology impacts their daily lives. 
  • Teach students practical scientific skills, which they can use to investigate, study and explain the world around them, from a Biblical worldview.  All students are required to prepare an original project and research paper for Geneva’s bi-annual science fair. 
  • Encourage the spirit of scientific investigation and with it the attitudes of accuracy in thought and work. 
  • Give students a basic understanding of the scientific ideas regarding micro and macro evolution, equipping students to identify the worldview and assumptions that underlie it as well as the Biblical worldview and understanding of how life started. 


Students will deepen their appreciation of God’s beauty and the many artistic gifts he has given throughout the ages. Students who successfully complete this class will be able to do the following: 

  • Define the study of aesthetics and articulate its value in general and to a Christian 
  • Understand and use correctly the vocabulary of artistic concepts, methods, materials 
  • Accurately describe the links between the cultures of the Byzantines, Muslims, Vikings, Anglo-Saxons, and Christians in the middle Ages and their art and architecture 
  • Recognize key works of art and architecture from each of the civilizations studied 
  • Link Gothic expressions to their modern incarnations 
  • Explain how Christians of the Middle Ages incarnated their beliefs into art and architecture 



Students must meet the prerequisites of Latin I and II as well as Spanish I before taking this advanced second language.  Spanish II will lead students into an intermediate proficiency in Spanish. It emphasizes the communication, culture, connections, comparisons, and communities of Spanish speaking people.  A successful student will be able to do the following: 

  • Appreciate the diversity of cultures and languages of God’s people 
  • Understand, speak and write Spanish at an intermediate level 
  • Apply grammar to another language and build sentences in Spanish 
  • Discuss the cultural and geographical similarities and differences of Spanish speaking countries 
  • Take advantage of the increased opportunities available to those with Spanish speaking skills 



Introductory Choral Music with the Kodaly method 

Increasingly taking a leadership role in the choral singing in class and school 

Folk songs, hymns, patriotic songs, and Christian holiday works are introduced and practiced 



Advanced Art students will learn more about the elements of Art and Principles of Design, including a study in lettering and typography, paper cutting, drawing (with pen, ink, graphite, charcoal, and oil and chalk pastel), ceramic Sgraffito wedding vase. Successful students will also study:   

  • High relief and bas relief sculpture 
  • Plaster figure sculpture  
  • Relief printmaking,  
  • Ceramic Greek red/black figure vessels 
  • Watercolor painting 
  • Acrylic painting 



Twice a week with exercises, stretching, and individual and team games. 

Emphasis on general fitness and cultivating lifelong habits of activity