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Ninth Grade

Ninth Grade


Students will gain an appreciation for God’s Wisdom, as seen in the person and work of Christ, by sustained and disciplined inquiry into the wisdom literature of the church as recorded in Psalms, Proverbs, Song of Solomon, Ecclesiastes and Job. 

Students will examine the wisdom of Christ as seen in the wisdom literature of Holy Scripture, by doing the following: 

  • Debate different Modern interpretations of the texts through progymnasmata writing exercises of Confirmation and Refutation and oral exercises of the formal dialectic 
  • Become familiar with the way the Modern privileging of Reason overthrew the ancient tradition of wisdom, and see how this affects the reading and application of God’s Holy Word to all of life 
  • Engage in a multiyear study of the use of figures of speech in holy scripture, through use of the text by Bullinger 
  • Find events in the text on geographical maps, and observing the change of maps over time, and locate events in the text on a timeline 
  • Memorize proverbs and psalms and recite or sing them as a class and individually 
  • Apply biblical concepts learned in class to real-world situations, so that they will be prepared to apply them to unpredictable situations later in life 
  • Engage in a sustained inquiry into our need for wisdom, as seen in a research paper based in the class reading of the book on biblical wisdom 
  • Pray these scriptures through the adoption of a habitual practice of morning and evening prayer, modeled on Lectio Divina  

The student will academically study the same passages they pray so that God’s Spirit will form both the head and the heart for a lifelong love of God’s Word.  



Students will gain an appreciation for the emergence of modern civilization, from the time of the Reformation and Renaissance through the Age of Revolutions to the present with specific attention given to the Industrial Revolution, World Wars, Cold War and current Culture War   

Students will engage in sustained and disciplined inquiry into modern civilization by doing the following: 

  • Debate different historical interpretations of events such as the morality of entering the World War or dropping the atomic bomb to end it, through writing exercises of Confirmation and Refutation and oral exercises of formal dialectic 
  • Find events in the text on geographical maps, and observing the change of maps over time 
  • Locate events in the text on a timeline and memorization of Geneva Academy timeline for class 
  • Apply insights from historical research to the real world, so they will be prepared to apply them to unpredictable events in life  
  • Explore different fallacies of historians and historiography (selections from David Hackett Fischer’s Historians’ Fallacies) 

Students will spend extended time developing close reading skills in primary source historical material including but not limited to:  

  • Selections from The Enlightenment Reader 
  • Autobiographies of Ben Franklin  
  • American Foundational Documents 
  • The Origin and Principles of the American Revolution..., by Fredrich Gentz 
  • Communist Manifesto and Russian Revolution readings 
  • Lincoln-Douglas debates, and Lincoln’s Speeches 
  • Selections related to Turner’s Frontier Thesis and Industrialization   
  • Treaty of Versailles 
  • Mein Kampf and readings related to WW2 
  • Selections related to Cold War, Civil Rights Movement, and Fall of the Soviet Union  

The teacher will also draw from resources including but not limited to Jackson Spielvogel’s Western Civilization: Since 1500, Volume 2, and Hendrick Van Loon’s Story of America 



Students will gain an appreciation for the literature of modern civilization from the time of the Reformation and Renaissance through the Enlightenment and Romanticism to the emergence of literary modernity and its transformation into postmodernity.   

Students will engage in sustained and disciplined inquiry into the literature of modern civilization by doing the following: 

  • Debate different literary interpretations through writing exercises of Confirmation and Refutation and oral exercises of formal dialectic 
  • Expand their knowledge of writing exercises from Selby’s Classical Composition, focusing on Thesis and Law 
  • Locate literary events on a historical timeline and memorization of Geneva Academy timeline for class 
  • Use experience to interpret texts and apply insights from literature to the real world, so they will be prepared to apply them to unpredictable events later in life  
  • Become familiar with the writing/editing process through a weekly rough draft revision in peer editing sessions and teacher corrections  
  • Imitate good writing at the sentence, paragraph and essay level, separating form from content and adapting the form to new content from the student's own experience 
  • Develop extensive vocabulary and copious writing skills through the use of Erasmus’ writing exercises, and weekly vocabulary games taken from the readings 
  • Memorization of poetry 

Students will cultivate close reading skills by reading and debating the interpretation of great works of literature in the primary source, including but not limited to the following:  

  • Pilgrim's Progress, by John Bunyan 
  • Gulliver's Travels and Modest Proposal, by Jonathan Swift 
  • A Tale of Two Cities, by Charles Dickens 
  • Frankenstein, by Mary Shelly and poetry from Shelly and Byron 
  • Uncle Tom’s Cabin, by Harriet Beecher Stowe 
  • Pit and the Pendulum and various short stories from London and O’Conner 
  • Adventures of Tom Sawyer, by Mark Twain or Huckleberry Finn 
  • Animal Farm and 1984 by George Orwell 
  • To Kill and Mockingbird, by Harper Lee 
  • The Great Gatsby, by Fitzgerald 

The teacher will also draw from other literary resources approved by Geneva Academy.  



Students will study the origin, history, purpose and biblical application of Classical Rhetoric by working through The Rhetoric Companion: A Students Guide to Power in Persuasion.  The teacher will make selections for classroom reading and discussion from the following: 

  • Selections from The Rhetoric, by Aristotle 
  • Selections from Platonic dialogues 
  • Cicero’s Classical Canons of Rhetoric  
  • Institutes of Oratory, by Quintilian 
  • Classic Rhetoric for the Modern Student by Corbett 

A successful student in this class will be able to do the following: 

  • Make interpretations of the text and defend them in civil classroom discussion 
  • Apply the concepts learned to public speaking exercises, such as speech meet 
  • Demonstrate mastery of the progymnasmata exercises by writing persuasive examples of each of the exercises 
  • Remember and be able to recognize the five canons of rhetoric, the three kinds of style, and compose an example of the three genres of rhetoric 



Algebra one students build on their success in pre-algebra, by continuing to master the skills necessary for higher mathematical instruction in the Upper School. Geneva math students are required to teach four math topics, to their fellow students in public presentations in order to develop their mathematical and rhetorical competence. The successful Algebra student will be able to recognize and solve problems in the following areas:  

  • Solving for Unknown with GCF & LCM 
  • Order of Operations 
  • Graphing Lines and Inequalities 
  • Equation of a Line 
  • Slope Intercept Formula 
  • Solving Simultaneous Equations 
  • Trinomial Factoring & Repeated Factoring 
  • Multiply & Divide Polynomials 
  • Fractional Exponents 
  • Difference of Two Squares 
  • Pythagorean Theorem and Radicals 
  • Area, Perimeter, & Volume of Polygons 
  • Supplementary & Complementary Angles 
  • Midpoints, Bisectors, & Transversals 
  • Parallel & Perpendicular Lines 
  • Points, Lines, Rays, & Planes 
  • Square & Cube Roots and Radicals 
  • Construct Angles & Triangles 
  • Types of Triangles 
  • Prove Triangles Congruent 



The goal of this course is to discover and study the physical laws and matter that God created at an introductory level so that students will be better equipped to study these in more detail in the subsequent years.  This course will introduce traditional concepts of physics and some chemistry.  Conceptual and mathematical understanding of physics will be stressed.  Problem-solving skills, test-taking skills, time-on-task, problem-based learning, critical thinking situations, and activity and lab-based learning will be incorporated throughout the course. 

Course Objectives: 

  • Instill wonder and awe in students as they discover the intricate design, order, and complexity of God’s creation. 
  • Give students a deeper understanding of how physics and laws of nature impact their daily lives. 
  • Teach students practical scientific skills, which they can use to investigate, study and explain the world around them, from a Biblical worldview.  All students are required to prepare an original project and research paper for Geneva’s bi-annual science fair. 
  • Encourage the spirit of scientific investigation and with it the attitudes of accuracy, in thought and work. 
  • Prepare students for further study in physics and chemistry. 



  • Students must meet the prerequisites of Latin I and II before taking this second language.  Spanish students will learn how to speak and understand basic Spanish (well enough to use on a mission trip or to share their faith). Students will learn how to understand various Spanish-speaking peoples, how to write and compose sentences, including verb conjugation and correct grammar and vocabulary.  

A successful student will be able to do the following: 

  • Appreciate the diversity of cultures and languages of God’s people 
  • Understand, speak and write Spanish at an elementary level 
  • Apply grammar to another language and build sentences in Spanish 
  • Discuss the cultural and geographical similarities and differences of Spanish speaking countries 
  • Take advantage of the increased opportunities available to those with Spanish speaking skills 


Introductory Choral Music with the Kodaly method 

Folk songs, hymns, patriotic songs, and Christian holiday works are introduced and practiced 



Introduction to the Foundations of Art students will learn about the elements of Art and Principles of Design, including a study in watercolor leaf painting, Audobon inspired colored pencil drawing, graphite self-portrait, Ceramic coil vases, and face mugs. Students will also do further studies in the following: 

  • Linoleum Printmaking 
  • Bas relief Tiles 
  • Rose window color wheel painting 
  • Tempera Painting 
  • Acrylic painting 
  • One-point perspective 


Twice a week with exercises, stretching, and individual and team games. 

Emphasis on general fitness and cultivating lifelong habits of activity