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Eighth Grade

Eighth Grade


  • Students will gain an appreciation for God’s church by sustained and disciplined inquiry into the early history of the church as recorded in the Acts of the Apostles and the pastoral epistles including Hebrews, James, 1 & 2 Peter, 1-3 John, and Jude. 
  • Students will examine the early history of the Kingdom of Christ in this world, by doing the following: 
  • Debate different Medieval interpretations of the text through writing exercises of Confirmation and Refutation and oral exercises of the formal dialectic 
  • Become familiar with the medieval and classical practice of ars dictaminis and appreciate insights able to be gained from scripture by attending to its rhetorical genre 
  • Find events in the text on geographical maps, and observing the change of maps over time 
  • Locate events in the text on a timeline and memorize Geneva Academy timeline for class 
  • Memorize the Nicean and the Chalcedonian Creeds and recite or sing them as a class and individually 
  • Applying biblical concepts learned in class to real-world situations, so that they will be prepared to apply them to unpredictable situations later in life 
  • Engage in a sustained inquiry into a conflict in early church history, as seen in a research paper based in the reading on early church history 
  • Pray these scriptures through the adoption of a habitual practice of morning and evening prayer, modeled on Lectio Divina  
  • The student will academically study the same passages they pray so that God’s Spirit will form both the head and the heart for a lifelong love of God’s Word. 
  • Students will engage in a yearlong close reading of a teacher selected book on early church history, analyzing the doctrinal debates leading up to and resulting from the Nicaean/Chalcedonian orthodox heritage. 



  • Students will gain an appreciation for the cultural and material life of medieval civilization, from the time of Christ’s Ascension to the advent of the Reformation with specific attention given to the Carolingian renaissance and the rise and decline of the Holy Roman Empire and the Crusades 
  • Students will engage in sustained and disciplined inquiry into medieval civilization by doing the following: 
  • Debate different historical interpretations of events such as the Crusades through writing exercises of Confirmation and Refutation and oral exercises of formal dialectic 
  • Find events in the text on geographical maps, and observing the change of maps over time 
  • Locate events in the text on a timeline and memorize Geneva Academy timeline for the class 
  • Apply insights from historical research to the real world, so they will be prepared to apply them to unpredictable events in life  
  • Explore different fallacies of historians and historiography (selections from David Hackett Fischer’s Historians’ Fallacies) 

Students will spend extended time developing close reading skills in primary source historical material including but not limited to:  

  • Church History, by Eusibius 
  • Rule of St. Benedict, by Benedict or Nursia 
  • Two Lives of Charlemagne, by Einhard and Notker the Stammerer 
  • The Ecclesiastical History of Britain, by Bede 
  • The History of the Kings of Britain, by Geoffrey of Monmouth 
  • Primary sources related to the Crusades 
  • Magna Carta and related documents 
  • Selections from Domesday Book and Anglo-Saxon Chronicles and other primary source documents 

The teacher will also draw from resources including but not limited to Jackson Spielvogel’s Western Civilization: A Brief History Vol 1 to 1715 and   R.H. C. Davis’ A History of Medieval Europe  



  • Students will gain an appreciation for the literature of medieval civilization from the Ascension of Christ to the time of the Reformation with specific attention given to the literature of medieval Europe.   
  • Students will engage in sustained and disciplined inquiry into the literature of medieval civilizations by doing the following: 
  • Debate different historical interpretations through writing exercises of Confirmation and Refutation and oral exercises of formal dialectic 
  • Expand their knowledge of writing through exercises from Selby’s Classical Composition, focusing on Characterization, Impersonation, and Description 
  • Locate literary events on a historical timeline and memorization of Geneva Academy timeline for class 
  • Use experience to interpret texts and apply insights from literature to the real world, so they will be prepared to apply them to unpredictable events later in life  
  • Become familiar with the writing/editing process through a weekly rough draft revision in peer editing sessions and teacher corrections  
  • Imitate good writing at the sentence, paragraph and essay level, separating form from content and adapting the form to new content from the student's own experience 
  • Develop extensive vocabulary and copious writing skills through the use of Erasmus’ writing exercises, and weekly vocabulary games taken from the readings 
  • Memorization of poetry 

Students will cultivate close reading skills by reading and debating the interpretation of great works of literature in the primary source, including but not limited to the following:  

  • Confessions, by St. Augustine 
  • Beowulf 
  • Song of Roland  
  • Saga of the Volsungs 
  • Sir Gawain and the Green Knight 
  • The Divine Comedy: Inferno   
  • Henry 5 or Macbeth 
  • Ivanhoe or Adventures of Robin Hood 
  • Selections from Canterbury Tales 
  • Owl and the Nightingale and other debate poems 
  • Medieval Love debate poetry selections 
  • Everyman or Piers Plowman 

The teacher will also draw from European Literature and the Latin Middle Ages, by Ernest Robert Curtius and other resources 



  • Students will continue to refine their mastery of the process of formal dialectical disputation, through the learning of different medieval rules for formal debate and discovering the impact these rules change have on the practice of disputation 
  • Students will discover the ways in which formal fallacies can get in the way of productive disputation and truth-seeking  
  • Students will refine their practice of formal disputation through the application of formal logic and the formal fallacies to their ongoing practice of disputation  
  • Students will go through formal logical instruction in the Square of Opposition and valid syllogisms demonstrating their mastery of these concepts in debate with the class 
  • Students will memorize William of Sherwood’s chant on formal validity and valid transformations 
  • Students will apply the tool of logic to their learning in science and history and literature and bible through weekly debates 



After this year-long course, the successful student will be able to:  

  • Translate the Vulgate Bible with a high degree of accuracy 
  • Read Latin references in academic books 
  • Accurately recognize the subjunctive mood, gerunds, gerundives, and the six infinitives 
  • Describe the logical beauty of the Latin language 
  • Take the National Latin Exam 
  • Explain the impact of the Vulgate through the Middle Ages and Renaissance 
  • Competently use Latin grammars and the Castle Latin Dictionary 

The teacher-developed curriculum draws on Latin in the Christian Trivium, by Gail Busby and Mary Harrington Vol 3 &4 



Students will explore geometry and develop their logical reasoning skills by building geometric constructs, in the form trusses, and bridges, while applying deductive and inductive reasoning, and learning to build elegant proofs from beginning to end.  The focus of this course will be on lines, triangles, polygons, various other geometric shapes, and of course proofs.   

A successful student will be able to: 

  • Build geometric constructions 
  • Work with conditional statements 
  • Apply inductive and deductive reasoning 
  • Bisect lines and angles 
  • Define congruence 
  • Show that two lines are parallel 
  • Identify quadrilaterals 
  • Prove the Pythagorean theory in multiple ways  
  • Produce a transformation 
  • Work with the laws of sine and cosine 
  • Prove that there can be only five regular solids 
  • Define and work with secant and tangent 
  • Work with polygons, circles, geometric solids 


This course will be a rigorous introduction to geometric demonstration and proof. Students will work through the propositions of The Elements by Euclid, Books 1 - 3, which cover the fundamentals of plane geometry, including compass-and-straightedge constructions, triangle congruences, angle relationships, area equality theorems, Pythagorean Theorem, geometric algebra, and circle theorems.  A successful student will be able to do the following: 

  • Understand the elements of an axiomatic deductive system of reasoning 
  • Follow the enunciation, construction, proof, conclusion format of writing a proof 
  • Recite from memory the postulates and common notions of Book 1 of The Elements 
  • Memorize all propositions of Book 1 
  • Prove theorems by direct proof, as well as by reductio ad absurdum 
  • Express the relationships of theorems and converse theorems, and use proofs by reductio ad absurdum to prove the converses 
  • Prove the propositions of Book 2 both by algebra and by written composition 
  • Articulate the connection between the Pythagorean Theorem and the algebraic equations for circles 
  • Show how transformations of circles affect the algebraic equations 
  • Work cooperatively in a group setting, both offering and accepting critical feedback 



Students will be exposed to the importance of a creation world view, and study different theories of creation and compare them to scientific and biblical data. A successful student will be able to do the following: 

Describe earth's motion in space and elements of the celestial sphere 

Relate the key factors of meteorology 

Discuss the major topics concerning the lithosphere and hydrosphere including geology, teutonics, weathering, and oceans, etc.  

Use practical scientific skills to investigate, study and explain the world around them from a biblical worldview 

Enter into the spirit of scientific investigation with appropriate concern for accuracy 

Prepare an original project, research paper, and presentation for the science fair   

Students will cultivate a sense of wonder and awe as they come to see and appreciate the complex design, and order of God's creation.  



Introductory Choral Music with the Kodaly method 

Folk songs, hymns, patriotic songs, and Christian holiday works are introduced and practiced 



Introduction to the Foundations of Art students will learn about the elements of Art and Principles of Design, including a study in watercolor leaf painting, Audobon inspired colored pencil drawing, graphite self-portrait, Ceramic coil vases and face mugs. Students will also do further studies in the following: 

Linoleum Printmaking 

Bas relief Tiles 

Rose window color wheel painting 

Tempara Painting 

Acrylic painting 

One-point perspective 


Twice a week with exercises, stretching, and individual and team games. 

Emphasis on general fitness and cultivating lifelong habits of activity